Battered Child Syndrome (BCS) Or Caffey Syndrome Causes, Symptoms, Injuries

Definition

it is a clinical condition in which a child receives non-accidental injuries once or more than one time by his parents or guardians. Usually, the age of the child is below 3 years. It is seen more in male than female. Other names of Battered child syndrome are caffey syndrome, Caffey-Kempe syndrome.

Causes

  • Lower socioeconomic background
  • Low level of education of caregivers
  • Financial problems
  • Caregivers suffering from stress because of work or family conditions.
  • A child born with the unmarried couple is more likely to suffer from "Battered child syndrome".
  • Unwanted child due to the failure of contraceptives.
  • Drug abuse or alcoholism.
  • Parents themselves were the victim of BCS.
  • Triggering factors are frequent cry, which creates disturbance in activities of parents. disobedient behaviour, bed wetting.


Symptoms

  • Parents seek late medical care facilities for serious Injuries.
  • Parents give a false history of accidental Injuries like fall from height or stairs.
  • Some injuries are found in healing stages.
  • Slap marks, lash marks, pinch marks bruises of fist size and shape, cigarette burn marks, bite marks are found on child's body.

Injuries

  • Bruises, abrasions and lacerations are seen on body surface
  • Retinal haemorrhages 
  • Injury To liver spleen.
  • Fractures of long bone
  • Scald or burn marks

Diagnosis

  • Repetitive injuries
  • Late medical care
  • Radiological investigation shows fractures of long bone and skull.
  • Physical examination shows bruises, laceration, Injuries in various stages of healing, retinal haemorrhages, internal organ damage, burn marks.

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