Phthisis Bulbi : Causes, Symptoms, Stages, Prognosis and Treatment

Phthisis bulbi is an end-stage eye disease characterized by soft, shrunken, disorganized and atrophic eye. It is the complication of other eye diseases. Reduced aqueous humor production in phthisis bulbi lower the intraocular pressure of eyeball.

Causes of Phthisis Bulbi If many eye diseases are not get proper treatment for long periods of time, then it may result in phthisis bulbi. Any of the following conditions can lead to the development of phthisis bulbi- Chronic inflammatory conditions like uveitis, keratitis, Endophthalmites.Penetrating corneal injury and corneal ulcerBlunt traumaPost-surgical (cataract surgery)InfectionsChronic Retinal detachment (separation of  neurosensory later of retinal from pigment epithelium)Tumors e.g. Retinoblastoma (in children) Signs and Symptoms Following Symptoms may be present in a patient of phthisis bulbi - Loss of visual acuityRednessPhotosensitivityPain and tenderness in and around the eye.Perception of light is absentEye become a small, shrun…

Battered Child Syndrome (BCS) Or Caffey Syndrome Causes, Symptoms, Injuries

Definition it is a clinical condition in which a child receives non-accidental injuries once or more than one time by his parents or guardians. Usually, the age of the child is below 3 years. It is seen more in male than female. Other names of Battered child syndrome are caffey syndrome, Caffey-Kempe syndrome.
Causes Lower socioeconomic backgroundLow level of education of caregiversFinancial problemsCaregivers suffering from stress because of work or family conditions.A child born with the unmarried couple is more likely to suffer from "Battered child syndrome".Unwanted child due to the failure of contraceptives.Drug abuse or alcoholism.Parents themselves were the victim of BCS.Triggering factors are frequent cry, which creates disturbance in activities of parents. disobedient behaviour, bed wetting.

Symptoms Parents seek late medical care facilities for serious Injuries.Parents give a false history of accidental Injuries like fall from height or stairs.Some injuries are foun…

Electrocution (Electrical Injuries): Symptoms, Types, Causes of Death, Joule Burns and Flash Burns

Electrocution is the very destructive form of injuries resulting from high voltage current passing through the body. The severity of electrical Injuries varies from a transient unpleasant sensation due to brief contact with low-intensity household current to instantaneous death and massive injury from high-voltage electrocution.

Severity and type of electrical injury depends on various factors -

(1) Type of current - Alternative current (A.C) is more dangerous than the Direct current (D.C) because A.C have "hold on effect" when a person touches A.C source his hand muscles undergo tetanus spasms and he is unable to release the source until the supply is turned off. A.C also causes ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest. High voltage D.C. is used in defibrillator

(2) Pathway of Current - If Person's right hand is in contact with the source of current then current passes obliquely through heart and exit through feet and chances of death are more because it causes cardia…

Definition and Causes of Negative Autopsy

Definition:- In 2-3 % cases of the autopsy, the cause of death remains unknown even after detailed laboratory examination these cases are termed as negative autopsy. In these cases, gross, histological, Microbiological, Toxicological and Virological examinations show no signs of abnormality and no adverse medical history is present.

Causes of Negative Autopsy Death due to natural diseases like epilepsy, stroke, emotional stress, pathological processes, cardiac diseases.Due to Lack of histopathological and other investigation at autopsy site.Biochemical disturbances include uremia, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, electrolyte imbalance as in potassium deficiency.Reflex vagal inhibition, incompatible blood transfusion, air embolism, allergic reactions including drug idiosyncrasy.The inexperienced doctor or lack of proper trainingInadequate history and information regarding the situation in which death occurred.

Dying Declaration vs Dying Deposition

Dying Declaration:- This is the verbal or written statement of the person who is dying as a result of the illegal act. This statement is related to cause and circumstances of impending death.

Features and Procedure of Dying Declaration -The statement should be recorded in the presence of a magistrate.Due to this belief that a person who is dying tell the truth, the oath is not taken. The main role of the doctor is to clarify the condition of person that he/she is conscious and mentally sound (compos mentis).if the condition of the patient is very serious that he can't survive longer then doctor or police can record statement in the presence of two witnesses without waiting for the magistrate.No leading questions are asked.It should be recorded in same words as the person tells, without any alteration.If the person becomes unconscious or dies during recording, the doctor must record information which he has obtained.After completion of recording,  The declaration is sent to court …

Drowning: Types, Symptoms, Treatment and Causes of Death

Drowning is a form of violent asphyxial death, wherein the entry of air into the lungs is prevented by water or other fluids due to the submersion of mouth and nostril.
Types of Drowning Drowning is classified as follows:
1. Typical drowning:-  It is further classified into Fresh water drowningSalt water drowning 2. Atypical drowning:- It is classified into four types Dry drowningImmersion syndromeSecondary drowningShallow water drowning Epidemiology Drowning victims  are predominantly  male  (>  65%).  It occurs  in  the  summer  months,  more  frequently  seen in  rivers,  lakes,  ponds  and  creeks.The  age  groups  affected  are  the  children  (<  4  years) And  young  adults  (15-24  years).  Drugs  and  alcohol abuse  among  the  teenagers  are  other  associated factors. Causes of Death Asphyxia:  Most  common  causes  of  death.In  fresh  water  drowning,  death  results  from ventricular  fibrillation.  While  in  salt  water,  it  is  due to  cardiac  arrest  fr…

Vitamin B5: Functions and Sources

Vitamin B5 is a water soluble vitamin, also known as pantothenic (Greek: pantos- everywhere) Acid. It is one of the most widely distributed vitamins found in plants and animals. Pantoic acid and beta-alanine combine together to form pantothenic acid.

Functions of Vitamin B5 The functions of B5 are exerted through coenzyme A or CoA. Coenzyme A is a central molecule involved in all the metabolisms (carbohydrate, lipid and protein). Like other B vitamins, it is involved in chemical reactions of energy production.
Important roles of vitamin B5 in body Synthesis of fatty acidsRed blood cells formationFormation of stress and sex related hormone in adrenal glandMaintaining health of the nervous systemHelps in the utilization of Riboflavin ( vitamin B2)Maintaining healthy digestive tractLowers cholesterol levelsRecommended dietary allowance of vitamin B5 Up to 6 months of age, 1.7 mgFor 7-12 months, 1.8 mgFor 1-3 years of age, 2 mgFor 4-8 years of age, 3 mgFor 9-13 years of age, 4 mgAbove 14 ye…

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