Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD): Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Teatment

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic disorder. Multiple clear or brown fluid-filled cysts are formed in the kidney in PKD. The growth of these cysts leads to loss of normal kidney structure and functions and eventually causes kidney failure. Many other complications like hypertension and cysts formation in the liver may develop.

Symptoms of Polycystic Kidney disease The majority of patients of polycystic kidney disease remains asymptomatic earlier for many years. Usually, symptoms appear after 40 years of age. Symptoms of PKD are involved - Bilateral renal mass in the abdomenHematuria (blood in urine) due to cyst ruptureBack or flank painUrinary tract infectionsPyelonephritisRenal stonesHypertensionRarely proteinuria Causes of Polycystic Kidney Disease PKD is mostly caused by abnormalities in genes and rarely by acquired defects. There are three types of PKD -
(1) Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) ADPKD is caused by mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 genes. Symptoms…

9 Cancer Prevention Tips to Reduce Risk of Cancer

The good news is that you can protect yourself from cancer by following a healthy lifestyle and avoiding some chemical substances (Carcinogens) that cause cancer. according to WHO 30 to 50%  of all cases of cancers are preventable.

Development of cancer in a person depends upon a combination of genetic makeup (genes) and his lifestyle. Genetic profile of a person is unchangeable but lifestyle can be modified so the exclusion of one risk factor in the form of lifestyle modification reduces the risk of developing cancer. For example, if a person has a family history of lung cancer he can reduce the risk of cancer by avoiding smoking.

Here are some important cancer prevention tips -

1. Stop Using Tobacco
According to WHO Tobacco kills more than 7 million people worldwide every year. Smoking causes 15 different types of cancers, lungs and heart diseases. Smokers are susceptible to cancer of the throat, oral cavity, larynx, kidney, bladder, oesophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, cervix, bow…

Phthisis Bulbi : Causes, Symptoms, Stages, Prognosis and Treatment

Phthisis bulbi is an end-stage eye disease characterized by soft, shrunken, disorganized and atrophic eye. It is the complication of other eye diseases. Reduced aqueous humor production in phthisis bulbi lower the intraocular pressure of eyeball.

Causes of Phthisis Bulbi If many eye diseases are not get proper treatment for long periods of time, then it may result in phthisis bulbi. Any of the following conditions can lead to the development of phthisis bulbi- Chronic inflammatory conditions like uveitis, keratitis, Endophthalmites.Penetrating corneal injury and corneal ulcerBlunt traumaPost-surgical (cataract surgery)InfectionsChronic Retinal detachment (separation of  neurosensory later of retinal from pigment epithelium)Tumors e.g. Retinoblastoma (in children) Signs and Symptoms Following Symptoms may be present in a patient of phthisis bulbi - Loss of visual acuityRednessPhotosensitivityPain and tenderness in and around the eye.Perception of light is absentEye become a small, shrun…

Battered Child Syndrome (BCS) Or Caffey Syndrome Causes, Symptoms, Injuries

Definition it is a clinical condition in which a child receives non-accidental injuries once or more than one time by his parents or guardians. Usually, the age of the child is below 3 years. It is seen more in male than female. Other names of Battered child syndrome are caffey syndrome, Caffey-Kempe syndrome.
Causes Lower socioeconomic backgroundLow level of education of caregiversFinancial problemsCaregivers suffering from stress because of work or family conditions.A child born with the unmarried couple is more likely to suffer from "Battered child syndrome".Unwanted child due to the failure of contraceptives.Drug abuse or alcoholism.Parents themselves were the victim of BCS.Triggering factors are frequent cry, which creates disturbance in activities of parents. disobedient behaviour, bed wetting.

Symptoms Parents seek late medical care facilities for serious Injuries.Parents give a false history of accidental Injuries like fall from height or stairs.Some injuries are foun…

Electrocution (Electrical Injuries): Symptoms, Types, Causes of Death, Joule Burns and Flash Burns

Electrocution is the very destructive form of injuries resulting from high voltage current passing through the body. The severity of electrical Injuries varies from a transient unpleasant sensation due to brief contact with low-intensity household current to instantaneous death and massive injury from high-voltage electrocution.

Severity and type of electrical injury depends on various factors -

(1) Type of current - Alternative current (A.C) is more dangerous than the Direct current (D.C) because A.C have "hold on effect" when a person touches A.C source his hand muscles undergo tetanus spasms and he is unable to release the source until the supply is turned off. A.C also causes ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest. High voltage D.C. is used in defibrillator

(2) Pathway of Current - If Person's right hand is in contact with the source of current then current passes obliquely through heart and exit through feet and chances of death are more because it causes cardia…

Definition and Causes of Negative Autopsy

Definition:- In 2-3 % cases of the autopsy, the cause of death remains unknown even after detailed laboratory examination these cases are termed as negative autopsy. In these cases, gross, histological, Microbiological, Toxicological and Virological examinations show no signs of abnormality and no adverse medical history is present.

Causes of Negative Autopsy Death due to natural diseases like epilepsy, stroke, emotional stress, pathological processes, cardiac diseases.Due to Lack of histopathological and other investigation at autopsy site.Biochemical disturbances include uremia, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, electrolyte imbalance as in potassium deficiency.Reflex vagal inhibition, incompatible blood transfusion, air embolism, allergic reactions including drug idiosyncrasy.The inexperienced doctor or lack of proper trainingInadequate history and information regarding the situation in which death occurred.

Dying Declaration vs Dying Deposition

Dying Declaration:- This is the verbal or written statement of the person who is dying as a result of the illegal act. This statement is related to cause and circumstances of impending death.

Features and Procedure of Dying Declaration -The statement should be recorded in the presence of a magistrate.Due to this belief that a person who is dying tell the truth, the oath is not taken. The main role of the doctor is to clarify the condition of person that he/she is conscious and mentally sound (compos mentis).if the condition of the patient is very serious that he can't survive longer then doctor or police can record statement in the presence of two witnesses without waiting for the magistrate.No leading questions are asked.It should be recorded in same words as the person tells, without any alteration.If the person becomes unconscious or dies during recording, the doctor must record information which he has obtained.After completion of recording,  The declaration is sent to court …

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