Negative Autopsy

Definition:- In 2-3 % cases of the autopsy, the cause of death remains unknown even after detailed laboratory examination these cases are termed as negative autopsy. In these cases, gross, histological, Microbiological, Toxicological and Virological examinations show no signs of abnormality and no adverse medical history is present.

Causes of Negative Autopsy Death due to natural diseases like epilepsy, stroke, emotional stress, pathological processes, cardiac diseases.Due to Lack of histopathological and other investigation at autopsy site.Biochemical disturbances include uremia, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, electrolyte imbalance as in potassium deficiency.Reflex vagal inhibition, incompatible blood transfusion, air embolism, allergic reactions including drug idiosyncrasy.The inexperienced doctor or lack of proper trainingInadequate history and information regarding the situation in which death occurred.

Dying Declaration vs Dying Deposition

Dying Declaration:- This is the verbal or written statement of the person who is dying as a result of the illegal act. This statement is related to cause and circumstances of impending death.

Features and Procedure of Dying Declaration -The statement should be recorded in the presence of a magistrate.Due to this belief that a person who is dying tell the truth, the oath is not taken. The main role of the doctor is to clarify the condition of person that he/she is conscious and mentally sound (compos mentis).if the condition of the patient is very serious that he can't survive longer then doctor or police can record statement in the presence of two witnesses without waiting for the magistrate.No leading questions are asked.It should be recorded in same words as the person tells, without any alteration.If the person becomes unconscious or dies during recording, the doctor must record information which he has obtained.After completion of recording,  The declaration is sent to court …

Drowning: Types And Causes of Death

Drowning is a form of violent asphyxial death, wherein the entry of air into the lungs is prevented by water or other fluids due to the submersion of mouth and nostril.
Types of Drowning Drowning is classified as follows:
1. Typical drowning:-  It is further classified into Fresh water drowningSalt water drowning 2. Atypical drowning:- It is classified into four types Dry drowningImmersion syndromeSecondary drowningShallow water drowning Epidemiology Drowning victims  are predominantly  male  (>  65%).  It occurs  in  the  summer  months,  more  frequently  seen in  rivers,  lakes,  ponds  and  creeks.The  age  groups  affected  are  the  children  (<  4  years) And  young  adults  (15-24  years).  Drugs  and  alcohol abuse  among  the  teenagers  are  other  associated factors. Causes of Death Asphyxia:  Most  common  causes  of  death.In  fresh  water  drowning,  death  results  from ventricular  fibrillation.  While  in  salt  water,  it  is  due to  cardiac  arrest  fr…

Vitamin B5: Functions and Sources

Vitamin B5 is a water soluble vitamin, also known as pantothenic (Greek: pantos- everywhere) Acid. It is one of the most widely distributed vitamins found in plants and animals. Pantoic acid and beta-alanine combine together to form pantothenic acid.

Functions of Vitamin B5 The functions of B5 are exerted through coenzyme A or CoA. Coenzyme A is a central molecule involved in all the metabolisms (carbohydrate, lipid and protein). Like other B vitamins, it is involved in chemical reactions of energy production.
Important roles of vitamin B5 in body Synthesis of fatty acidsRed blood cells formationFormation of stress and sex related hormone in adrenal glandMaintaining health of the nervous systemHelps in the utilization of Riboflavin ( vitamin B2)Maintaining healthy digestive tractLowers cholesterol levelsRecommended dietary allowance of vitamin B5 Up to 6 months of age, 1.7 mgFor 7-12 months, 1.8 mgFor 1-3 years of age, 2 mgFor 4-8 years of age, 3 mgFor 9-13 years of age, 4 mgAbove 14 ye…

Vitamin B12: Functions, Sources, Deficiency Symptoms

Vitamin B12 is a water soluble vitamin. It is known as cobalamin because it contains mineral cobalt. it is a unique vitamin, synthesized by only microorganisms and not by animals and plants. It is required for Red blood cell formation, myelin synthesis around neurons, DNA synthesis, and energy production.

How Much Vitamin B12 Required? Up to age of 6 months 0.4 mcgFor 7-12 months of age, 0.5 mcgFor 1-3 years of age, 0.9 mcgFor 4-8 years of age, 1.2 mcgFor 9-13 years of age, 1.8 mcgIn adults (14+) 2.4 mcgFor pregnant female 2.6 mcgAnd for lactating mother 2.8 mcgSources of Vitamin B12 Foods of animal origin are the only natural sources of vitamin B12. The richest sources are liver, kidney, milk, curd, eggs, fish, pork, and chicken.The curd is a better source than milk, due to the synthesis of B12 by Lactobacillus.
Fortified foods (fortified breakfast, nondairy milk, and cereals) Are sources of vitamin B12 for vegans.

Deficiency of Vitamin B12 Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency are Anemia…

Vitamins: Definition, Classification, Types, Functions and Sources

Definition:  Vitamins are a group of organic nutrients, required in small quantities for a variety of biochemical functions that, generally, cannot be synthesized by the body and must, therefore, be supplied in the diet.

Classification On the basis of solubility, vitamins are classified into two categories-
1. Lipid-soluble vitamins Vitamin AVitamin D (Calciferol)Vitamin EVitamin K 2. Water-soluble vitamins Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)Vitamin B3 (Niacin)Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)Vitamin B7 (Biotin)Vitamin B9 (Folic acid)Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) Lipid-soluble vitamins are stored in the body but, water-soluble vitamins are eliminated through urine and require high dietary supplementation.
All B vitamins are known together as B complex.

Types and Their Sources 1. Vitamin A There are two types of vitamin A Retinoids and provitamins (Carotenoids). Retinoids comprise retinol, retinaldehyde, retinoic acid (preformed vitamin A…

Healthy Balanced Diet

What is Balanced Diet?    A Balanced diet is that diet, which fulfills your nutritional demands of the body and maintain the proper functions of tissues and organs. It contains vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, protein, fats in balanced quantity. Following a balanced diet plan will make you active, healthy and happy. It is not same for everyone and depends upon your age, gender, illness and your daily physical activity.Balanced diet involves a wide variety of foods like fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, cereals, nuts and many more.

Five Recommendations are given by the WHO for the population and individual as follows: 

In a healthy diet vegetable, fruits, whole grains, and nuts should be included.Free sugar consumption should be limited.Limit salt intake from all sources and salt should be iodized in proper proportion.Limit total fat consumed as an energy sourceAchieve energy balance and a healthy weight.
Why a Balanced Diet is Important? Eating a healthy balance diet help you in maintai…

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